Leflore County was created in 1871 from Carroll, Sunflower and Tallahatchie counties and is the namesake of Greenwood Leflore. Leflore was a Choctaw chief and a signer of the Treaty of 1830, in which the Choctaw Indians sold all their lands east of the Mississippi River. After the sale, many Choctaws migrated to present day Oklahoma, but Leflore stayed and became a politician and wealthy planter.
The county is located within the state's delta region where cotton and catfish are plentiful. Mississippi is third behind California and Texas in cotton production, but 80% of all catfish produced in the United States come from the Mississippi delta.
Greenwood, once called Williams Landing, is the county seat of Leflore.